Savada, Andrea Matles (editor) (1994) "Events in 1945". [87], Human rights violations remain a significant concern in Laos. Vientiane prefecture, the capital and largest city, had about 683,000 residents in 2020. Metallurgy is an important industry, and the government hopes to attract foreign investment to develop the substantial deposits of coal, gold, bauxite, tin, copper, and other valuable metals. Economy Laos shifts to China equity from loans as party congress starts. ", "Communism and Capitalism Are Mixing in Laos", "Preparing the Cumulative Impact Assessment for the Nam Ngum 3 Hydropower Project: Financed by the Japan Special Fund", "Briefing note for countries on the 2015 Human Development Report – Laos", International Food Policy Research Institute, "UN expert: Lao PDR's economic strategy entrenches poverty", Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, European Council On Tourism And Trade Delegation Visit To Laos-World Best Tourist Destination – European Council On Tourism And Trade, "The Lao People's Democratic Republic's Vision for Ecotourism", "Focales n° 8. “The detention of [Sangkhane] shows that communist Laos never stops violating the human rights of its people, especially the right of expression and other universal basic rights enshrined in the Universal Human Rights Declaration that the Lao government has signed,” said Vanida Thepsouvanh, chairwoman of the Paris-based Lao Movement for Human Rights. 1997 - Laos becomes member of Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). [63] Provinces are further divided into districts (muang) and then villages (ban). The BBC is not responsible for the content of external sites. Communist take-over 1975 - The Pathet Lao - renamed the Lao People's Front - seizes power. In their opposition of the repatriation plans, Democratic and Republican Members of Congress challenged the Clinton administration's position that the government of Laos was not systematically violating Hmong human rights. They were the indigenous inhabitants of northern Laos. Laos is usually considered a single-party socialist republic, which is a fancy way of saying "communist" in … [153] The 2017 documentary feature film Blood Road was predominantly shot and produced in Laos with assistance from the Lao government, it was recognized with a News and Documentary Emmy Award in 2018. The ruling LPRP exerts tight control over the media and the government owns most of the mainstream outlets. "Effects of AFTA on poverty: Evidence from Laos." This sector has made significant contributions to the economic condition of Laos. Furthermore, why did Laos become communist? [16][17], The English word Laos was coined by the French, who united the three Lao kingdoms in French Indochina in 1893 and named the country as the plural of the dominant and most common ethnic group, the Lao people. Laos was then dependent on military and economic aid from the Soviet Union until its dissolution in 1991. [113], The Lao economy depends on investment and trade with its neighbors, Thailand, Vietnam, and, especially in the north, China. Once US imperialism had been defeated in 1975, the Lao monarchy was overthrown and the government was formed by the LPRP patriots. Laos produced tin, rubber, and coffee, but never accounted for more than one percent of French Indochina's exports. Laos was then dependent on military and economic aid from the Soviet Union until its dissolution in 1991. VideoFour-year-old's viral dinosaur song made into book, Why a teacher was killed 'execution-style' in Ethiopia, End to Gibraltar land border prompts joy and trepidation. Laos, a nation of 6.2 million, is in the dwindling communist club that includes China, Vietnam, Cuba and North Korea. Laos started a five-yearly congress of its long-ruling Communist Party on Wednesday to decide on the country's leadership and agree on a new economic strategy, as … Bounnhang Vorachit was appointed president by the National Assembly in April 2016. four months after being installed as head of the country's ruling Lao People's Revolutionary Party (LPRP). Lao Theung constitute about 30% of the population. His ministers, unable to tolerate his ruthlessness, forced him into exile to the present-day Thai province of Nan in 1373,[30] where he died. [134] Laos's progress is notable in comparison to similar developing countries. Between 1763 and 1769, Burmese armies overran northern Laos and annexed Luang Prabang, while Champasak eventually came under Siamese suzerainty. The Communist Party of Laos on Friday named Prime Minister Thongloun Sisoulith as its new secretary general, replacing retiring chief Bounnhang Vorachit, state media reported as the long-ruling party wrapped up its three-day congress.. Thongloun, 75, was elected to a five-year term as head of the Lao People's Revolutionary Party Central Committee – the top post in the … [100] A French colony until the 1953, the power … Laos proved to be a major battleground against communism during … Long live the free market, and keep Cambodia communist-free. [119] Rice dominates agriculture, with about 80% of the arable land area used for growing rice. Laos; Laos Communist Party; Laos democracy; Laos human rights; Laos politics; COVID-19 In Asia C. January 06, 2021 What Is the Truth About COVID-19 … Under Vietnamese pressure, he rebelled against the Siamese in 1826. 6, "Seventy Years of Anarchy", in. Nor any other country in that part of the world. Read about our approach to external linking. [53][54], The conflict between Hmong rebels and Laos continued in key areas of Laos, including in Saysaboune Closed Military Zone, Xaisamboune Closed Military Zone near Vientiane Province and Xieng Khouang Province. It is reflected throughout the country from language to the temple and in art, literature, and performing arts. Is Laos’ ruling communist party building up to an anti-corruption campaign similar to the ones we’ve seen in China and Vietnam? [46][50] The royalists set up a government in exile in the United States. [14][15] Laos has been referred to as one of Southeast Asia and Pacific's fastest growing economies by the World Bank with annual GDP growth averaging 7.7% since 2009. A new constitution was adopted in 1991 and enshrined a "leading role" for the LPRP.[46]. The Lao alphabet, which evolved sometime between the 13th and 14th centuries, was derived from the ancient Khmer script and is very similar to Thai script. It briefly gained independence in 1945 after Japanese occupation but was recolonised by France until it won autonomy in 1949. For example, Laotian music is dominated by its national musical instrument, the khaen, a type of bamboo pipe that has prehistoric origins. [45], During the First Indochina War, the Indochinese Communist Party formed the Pathet Lao independence organisation. [96] Later reports have contradicted this, claiming they were sentenced to 20 years in prison. Paul Lévy, ''Histoire du Laos'', PUF, 1974. [52] In 1979, there were 50,000 PAVN troops stationed in Laos and as many as 6,000 civilian Vietnamese officials including 1,000 directly attached to the ministries in Vientiane. However, these communist countries are quickly turning into multi-party state and adopting different philosophies. Pakxe has also experienced growth based on cross-border trade with Thailand and Vietnam. Much of Laos lacks adequate infrastructure. has been the most successful club with 8 titles, the highest number of championship wins. [12] Because of its central geographical location in Southeast Asia, the kingdom became a hub for overland trade and became wealthy economically and culturally. [40] Under French rule, the Vietnamese were encouraged to migrate to Laos, which was seen by the French colonists as a rational solution to a labour shortage within the confines of an Indochina-wide colonial space. The Tai-Kadai Languages, "Global Religious Landscape; Table: Religious Composition by Country", "Human Development Report 2009. Economy Laos shifts to China equity from loans as party congress starts. “The detention of [Sangkhane] shows that communist Laos … In 1893, the three territories came under a French protectorate and were united to form what is now known as Laos. The Pathet Lao were backed militarily by the People's Army of Vietnam (PAVN) and the Viet Cong. [104] Laos is an origin country for sexually trafficked persons. The head of state is President Bounnhang Vorachith, who is also General Secretary of the Lao People's Revolutionary Party. The revised constitution of 11 May 1957 omitted reference to the French Union, though close educational, health and technical ties with the former colonial power persisted. The main international airports are Vientiane's Wattay International Airport and Luang Prabang International Airport with Pakse International Airport also having a few international flights. But despite economic reforms, the country remains poor and heavily dependent on foreign aid. [86] Plans to resettle additional Hmong refugees in the United States were stalled by provisions of President George W. Bush's Patriot Act and Real ID Act, under which Hmong veterans of the Secret War, who fought on the side of the United States, are classified as terrorists because of their historical involvement in armed conflict. The constitution also contains provisions for gender equality, freedom of religion, freedom of speech, and freedom of press and assembly. [67], Some Hmong groups fought as CIA-backed units on the royalist side in the Laotian Civil War. [116] The economy receives development aid from the International Monetary Fund, Asian Development Bank, and other international sources; and also foreign direct investment for development of the society, industry, hydropower and mining (most notably of copper and gold). Largely dependent on Vietnamese aid, their leader was Prince Souphanouvong, the “Red Prince.” Born to a prince of Luang Prabang and a commoner, his education in Vietnam led him to become a disciple of Ho Chi Minh and, later, to lead the opposition against his half-brother, Souvanna Phouma, who was Prime … Between 1995 and 2008 approximately 1,232,900 more people had access to improved sanitation in rural areas. According to the CIA World Factbook, Laos became a communist government in 1975 under Pathet Lao. Video, The surveillance of Martin Luther King Jr. Video, The surveillance of Martin Luther King Jr, Final execution of Trump presidency is carried out, Tennis stars' arrival angers stranded Australians, Nasa's 'megarocket' set to fire up engines, All 50 US states on alert for armed protests, 'Like a medieval battle': The riots frontline, Nepali climbers make history with K2 winter summit. Most Laotians live in rural areas, with around 80% working in agriculture mostly growing rice. Bounchao Pichit, "Laos Cinema," in David Hanan, ed., construction of four new railways connecting Laos and neighbours, General Secretary of the Lao People's Revolutionary Party, Politburo of the Lao People's Revolutionary Party, Central Committee of the Lao People's Revolutionary Party, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, http://www.geonames.org/LA/largest-cities-in-laos.html, "Results of Population and Housing Census 2015", https://assets.pewresearch.org/wp-content/uploads/sites/11/2012/12/globalReligion-tables.pdf, "Lao People's Democratic Republic and the WTO", "China train project runs roughshod over Laos", "Laos approves Xayaburi 'mega' dam on Mekong", "Laos Securities Exchange to start trading", "10 Things You Need to Know Before Visiting Laos", "Anatomically modern human in Southeast Asia (Laos) by 46 ka", "Archaeological Investigations in northern Laos: New contributions to Southeast Asian prehistory", "History and Practice of Archaeology in Laos", Pittayaporn, Pittayawat (2014). [46][45], In 1968, the PAVN launched a multi-division attack to help the Pathet Lao fight the RLA. But although the Communist Party of Vietnam still publicly touts its adherence to Marxist-Leninist philosophy, Vietnamese communism has been adopting an increasingly capitalist guise ever since its readmission of private enterprise during the early 1980s. Similarly, in Laos, the communist Pathet Lao battled the Royal Laotian Government led by Souvanna Phouma from 1962 to 1975. L'histoire du Laos remonte jusqu'avant l'ère chrétienne, comme le démontrent les énigmatiques vestiges de la plaine des Jarres.Vers le V e siècle apr. [172] Since the start of the league, Lao Army F.C. [92], Ostensibly, the Constitution of Laos that was promulgated in 1991 and amended in 2003 contains most key safeguards for human rights. Many elements of Lao culture predate Buddhism, however. Ngum was descended from a long line of Lao kings that traced back to Khoun Boulom. The FIVE remaining communist countries are; Cuba, China, North Korea, Vietnam, Laos. 3, "Through Chaos to a New Order", in, Sanda Simms, ch. A short portage railway, the Don Det–Don Khon narrow gauge railway was built by the French in Don Det and Don Khon in Champasak Province but has been closed since the 1940s. [125] According to the Global Hunger Index (2018), Laos ranks as the 36th hungriest nation in the world out of the list of the 52 nations with the worst hunger situation(s). On 17 May 2014, Defense Minister and Deputy Prime Minister Douangchay Phichit was killed in a plane crash, along with other top ranking officials. "Lao Refugees Return Home Under European Union Repatriation Program", Associated Press Worldstream, 22 11, 1994. After the fall of the Soviet Union in the 1990s, Laos began opening up to the world. Coronavirus: 37, 475 patients in UK hospitals, Why California is struggling to contain Covid, The other virus that has scientists worried, Four-year-old's viral dinosaur song made into book. [123] In addition, the country's plentiful water resources and mountainous terrain enable it to produce and export large quantities of hydroelectric energy. [46] The head of state is President Bounnhang Vorachith, who is also General Secretary of the Lao People's Revolutionary Party.[64]. As the Pathet Lao movement came to power, the civil war ended and the country became communist. Civil war breaks out between royalists and the communist group, the Pathet Lao. Laos … In 1990 only 8% of the rural population had access to improved sanitation. Calculating U.S. A few days earlier the Khmer Rouge army had entered Phnom Penh. But his main rival Bobi Wine claims vote-rigging and vows to produce evidence. By 1940, around 600 French citizens lived in Laos. During the late 80s, some revisions were made to the country’s laws that allowed certain forms of private property, and in 2013 Laos joined the World Trade Organization. In a 23 October 1995 National Review article, Michael Johns, the former Heritage Foundation foreign policy expert and Republican White House aide, labelled the Hmong's repatriation a Clinton administration "betrayal", describing the Hmong as a people "who have spilled their blood in defense of American geopolitical interests". [43] On 9 March 1945, a nationalist group declared Laos once more independent, with Luang Prabang as its capital, but on 7 April 1945 two battalions of Japanese troops occupied the city. With one-party state status of Laos, the General Secretary (party leader) holds ultimate power and authority over state and government and serves as the supreme leader. [79], Lending further support to earlier claims that the government of Laos was persecuting the Hmong, filmmaker Rebecca Sommer documented first-hand accounts in her documentary, Hunted Like Animals,[80] and in a comprehensive report that includes summaries of refugee claims and was submitted to the UN in May 2006. Most people live in valleys of the Mekong River and its tributaries. Sticky rice is a staple food and has cultural and religious significance to the Lao people. [118] The irrigated areas under cultivation account for only 28% of the total area under cultivation which, in turn, represents only 12% of all of the agricultural land in 2012. [46] Between 1964 and 1973, the U.S. dropped two million tons of bombs on Laos, nearly equal to the 2.1 million tons of bombs the U.S. dropped on Europe and Asia during all of World War II, making Laos the most heavily bombed country in history relative to the size of its population; The New York Times notes this was "nearly a ton for every person in Laos". Download all free or royalty-free photos and vectors. Over a third of Laos's students are educated through the medium of French, with French being compulsory for all other students. Other carriers serving the country include Bangkok Airways, Vietnam Airlines, AirAsia, Thai Airways, China Eastern Airlines and SilkAir. [137], The people of Laos are often categorised by their distribution by elevation: (lowlands, midlands and upper high lands) as this somewhat correlates with ethnic groupings. The National Assembly, which essentially acts as a rubber stamp for the LPRP, approves all new laws, although the executive branch retains authority to issue binding decrees. Civil war breaks between royalists and the communist group, the Pathet Lao. [147] The total literacy rate is 73% (2010 estimate). Laos has a single-party communist government, in which the Lao People's Revolutionary Party (LPRP) is the only legal political party. Laos has nine daily newspapers, 90 magazines, 43 radio stations, and 32 TV stations operating throughout the country. The only legal political party is the Lao People's Revolutionary Party (LPRP). [144] It is also a member of the French organisation La Francophonie. Dominant style of folk music 139th on the issue escalated quickly Democratic Republic is one of the time... Collectively, they are known as the Pathet Lao to fall to the country sent team... 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