/Resources << >> /TT4 55 0 R /Thumb 81 0 R In 2005, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) published a scientific opinion on the impact of housing and husbandry systems on the health and welfare of farmed domestic rabbits 2 . >> /TT4 54 0 R /TT1 55 0 R >> /CS5 /DeviceGray The problem is that it may take very long time before we have enough data to prove the harmfulness and meanwhile the chemicals have spread. The reflection paper should include information on: 122 • Their use in veterinary medicine; 123 • Their use in human medicine; /ModDate (D:20060328204747+01'00') /GS0 47 0 R /Im0 85 0 R /TT26 53 0 R >> /LastModified (D:20040708200857) /ProcSet [/PDF /Text /ImageB] /Type /Page %&'()*456789:CDEFGHIJSTUVWXYZcdefghijstuvwxyz��������������������������������������������������������������������������� endobj 5. >> /TT7 57 0 R 7 0 obj >> endobj /TT3 55 0 R >> /AcroForm 4 0 R /Contents 68 0 R /Type /Metadata /CropBox [0 0 576 791.7594] << /Im0 92 0 R /Subtype /Type1 Leverets are born with hair and their eyes open and are able to move about soon after birth. << /TT0 52 0 R Rabbits cause damage to the environment by: - Overgrazing on native and/or sown shrubs and plants. /CS6 /DeviceRGB /GS1 48 0 R >> /GS1 48 0 R The European hare belongs to the family Leporidae, along with the rabbit. /TT27 52 0 R 6 0 obj /TT22 57 0 R /TT3 53 0 R /Contents [97 0 R 98 0 R] >> /Thumb 66 0 R There are direct and indirect impacts, as well as those that occur immediately and those that occur over a longer period of time. Economic Impact It would be difficult to exaggerate the economic and ecological impact of the rabbit prior to myxomatosis. 221-227. This crisis will undoubtably have a significant impact on how we live, travel and perceive our governments. According to Arnold (1994), the present establishment of rabbit breeds is extremely recent: unlike other … endobj 41 0 R 42 0 R 43 0 R 44 0 R 45 0 R] /Font << /CS0 /DeviceRGB /MediaBox [0 0 576 791.7594] /quotesingle 96 /grave 128 /bullet /dagger /daggerdbl /ellipsis /emdash /endash 14 0 obj >> >> << /Font << >> endobj endobj Mammal Biol 68:224–234 CrossRef Google Scholar Palomares F (2003b) Warren building by European rabbits ( Oryctolagus cuniculus ) … /GS0 47 0 R /Count 11 /XObject << /TT26 56 0 R /Type /XObject /ProcSet [/PDF /Text /ImageB] /GS7 48 0 R /XObject << Male hares are generally smaller than females. The main welfare issue they experience is restricted movement. /Name /Helv endobj <> >> /Thumb 69 0 R << /TT5 50 0 R endobj /ExtGState << %PDF-1.4 /CropBox [0 0 576 791.7594] <> 3 0 obj << /Resources << << Each year, the approximate overall cost caused by rabbits was estimated to be $206 million. /TT27 56 0 R 12 0 obj /Subtype /XML /CS0 /DeviceRGB /TT6 79 0 R >> >> We estimate that 150 000 deaths worldwide were caused by … /Rotate 0 endobj >> The fear is that it will do the same for human cells. /Type /Pages /TT31 89 0 R /Icircumflex /Idieresis /Eth /Ntilde /Ograve /Oacute /Ocircumflex /Otilde /Odieresis /multiply >> The impact of health and health behaviours on educational outcomes in high-income countries: a review of the evidence. >> $4�%�&'()*56789:CDEFGHIJSTUVWXYZcdefghijstuvwxyz�������������������������������������������������������������������������� ? 3�(|���~ty�����3�(ϰ�������?���ϰ�-�K`q��籟��q�-�V��G*dn=�:&��70ą~`y�g@�nU��}+���P�wԭ��� =��4y��G� ��&���F���\e���� =��4y��G� ��&���F���@��� =��4y��G� ��&���F���@��� =��4y��G� ��&��F=�q�C@A�O2Ʋ>I�. /CA 1 /Type /Page << /Type /Encoding /TT4 54 0 R /Rotate 0 %PDF-1.4 %���� /ColorSpace << /Font << /Length 764 15 0 obj <> /Contents 46 0 R /TT7 53 0 R /ExtGState << >> ��w��n��7���D���i����1� �ߝc� }�:m �+*�\�9`��9���������o�e�"��4��V��Fϛ'��oΏ6O��ߝE�tBO���Z}+q�l��ѿ:��l��ѿ:��l��ѿ:>�n� dP���F��9�dD� X�=9���JY��;W���d�+��-���}����?���X'�e{�+e\2� y�2�+�|���~ty�����3�(ϰ�,_1� �ߝc� }�:L� /XObject << The AGRI committee of the European Parliament requested EFSA to assess the welfare of rabbits farmed in different production systems, including organic production, and to update its 2005 scientific opinion about the health and welfare of rabbits kept for meat production. << /ProcSet [/PDF /Text /ImageB] << /LastModified (D:20040708200856) /ColorSpace << /ProcSet [/PDF /Text /ImageB] /brokenbar 168 /dieresis /copyright /ordfeminine 172 /logicalnot /.notdef /registered /macron Europe (a bout 4500 farms producing) Public concerns: poor welfare, high stress, high mortality, no specific stunning methods No species-specific legislation protecting the welfare of … /CS1 /DeviceGray 17 0 R] /BaseFont /Helvetica << /Im0 78 0 R /LastModified (D:20040708200856) Pleuromutilin is a natural antimicrobial substance produced by the fungus Pleurotus mutilus, now called Clitopilus scyphoides.1,2 Tiamulin and valnemulin are semi-synthetic derivatives of pleuromutilin and both drugs are used exclusively in veterinary medicine. << 17 0 obj /ExtGState << << /MediaBox [0 0 576 791.7594] /Resources << /G3 22 0 R /LJ 0 /Thumb 84 0 R /TT2 54 0 R >> - Increasing and spreading the amount of invasive weeds which overtake crops. >> .ti��eR=5y#�:�B�i�;���sX(������ɘ�R�Sr�h�? /ProcSet [/PDF /Text /ImageB] 10 0 obj /TT8 56 0 R The welfare of adult rabbits kept in conventional cage systems is worse than that of those housed in other systems used in the EU, EFSA has concluded. /TT22 54 0 R Identification: The European rabbit is grayish brown with mixed black, brown and reddish hairs on its back, light brown to beige fur on its underside, a beige ring around its eyes, and long black-tipped ears. /Differences [24 /breve /caron /circumflex /dotaccent /hungarumlaut /ogonek /ring /tilde 39 /Parent 2 0 R /Parent 2 0 R There is an economic cost of the impact of a polluted environment on health. ��f=�q�@�1>�z�A /Im0 75 0 R /ProcSet [/PDF /Text /ImageB] /Contents 73 0 R /Resources << >> /ML 4 121 . 19 0 obj >> << /ExtGState << /Pages 2 0 R >> /TT35 54 0 R >> >> /Font << /Type /Page endstream /LW 1 /ExtGState << The European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) is an introduced species, which was first brought to Australia with the First Fleet in 1788 as domesticated livestock. /Thumb 99 0 R 2004-07-08T21:04:04+05:30 /Parent 2 0 R /TT0 50 0 R /LastModified (D:20040708200857) /Rotate 0 >> /XObject << >> /quoteright /quotesinglbase /trademark /fi /fl /Lslash /OE /Scaron /Ydieresis /Zcaron << /G9 23 0 R The renaissance of the laboratory rabbit as a reproductive model for human health is closely related to the growing evidence of periconceptional metabolic programming and its determining effects on offspring and adult health. >> /TT5 57 0 R /Metadata 3 0 R /MediaBox [0 0 594.95996 840.95996] >> VHD of rabbits and human health 411 [ VHD human testing protocol I Competitive EIA I equivocal \ -/ Report negative i [ Report indeterminate Report positive 4] I Fig. /StructParents 0 /Type /Catalog /MediaBox [0 0 576 791.7594] endobj >> /CropBox [0 0 580.5593 794.1599] /Annots [31 0 R 32 0 R 33 0 R 34 0 R 35 0 R 36 0 R 37 0 R 38 0 R 39 0 R 40 0 R /TT1 57 0 R /TT19 55 0 R /ProcSet [/PDF /Text /ImageB] endobj 24 0 obj The disease can live on the ground for many days and can be passed to other rabbits who pass by. /Subtype /Image << /Width 50 Livestock industries suffer most direct economic loss at present, but grain and horticultural crops, forestry and carbon plantings can all be affected. /MediaBox [0 0 576 791.7594] >> /X8 25 0 R >> /XObject << /DA (/Helv 0 Tf 0 g ) /Type /Page >> endobj /Contents 93 0 R The findings are part of a comprehensive comparison of the different rabbit housing systems used in the EU. /ExtGState << /TT27 50 0 R /MediaBox [0 0 576 791.7594] /Adieresis /Aring /AE /Ccedilla /Egrave /Eacute /Ecircumflex /Edieresis /Igrave /Iacute /FICL#3AEnfocus 5 0 R /igrave /iacute /icircumflex /idieresis /eth /ntilde /ograve /oacute /ocircumflex /otilde /MediaBox [0 0 576 791.7594] /Im0 67 0 R /TT4 56 0 R 2004-07-08T21:04:18+05:30 /TT0 52 0 R 1. Palomares F (2003a) The negative impact of heavy rains on the abundance of a Mediterranean population of European rabbits. /TT29 51 0 R 2, pp. Offspring under one year are referred to as 'leverets'. stream /TT20 79 0 R << >> /GS0 47 0 R /LastModified (D:20040708200856) /TT24 71 0 R The Council of Europe, via its Standing Committee of the European Convention for the Protection of >> 5 0 obj /BaseFont /ZapfDingbats /CS7 /DeviceGray /ZaDb 18 0 R /DR << >> /GS1 48 0 R /CropBox [0 0 576 791.7594] /TT33 71 0 R �j{��Xcw#n3SY^@�䅂o`s�ֵ�k��[@g��,�A>&�Rj{�0���6��&��X. %���� /F8 96 0 R /Keywords ( ) It causes severe damage to the natural environment and to agriculture. /TT5 54 0 R /Type /Page endobj /odieresis /divide /oslash /ugrave /uacute /ucircumflex /udieresis /yacute /thorn /ydieresis] /Rotate 0 /CS1 /DeviceGray /TT14 53 0 R /ExtGState << /TT17 57 0 R /CropBox [0 0 579.8396 794.1599] /TT6 53 0 R /TT24 55 0 R endobj >> /Parent 2 0 R 13 0 obj /ordmasculine 188 /onequarter /onehalf /threequarters 192 /Agrave /Aacute /Acircumflex /Atilde /CropBox [0 0 577.4392 792.7196] /ExtGState << /Thumb 94 0 R /LastModified (D:20040708200857) /TT21 52 0 R >> Immanuel Kant. >> /Font << /CS0 /DeviceRGB European Rabbits have a body length between 34 and 50 cms (13.5 - 20 inches), a tail length between 4 and 8 cms (1.6 - 3.25 inches) and they weigh between 1 and 2.5 kgs (2.25 - 5.5 lbs). /BM /Normal /SA true /Parent 2 0 R /F6 29 0 R endobj /TT18 50 0 R /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /TT2 53 0 R >> /TT0 52 0 R /TT3 51 0 R Most of the past efforts have focused on single substances that were deemed harmful. /TT5 55 0 R endobj /TT3 56 0 R /Type /Font /Font <> /GS0 47 0 R /ca 1 Domestic rabbit populations comprise local populations, breeds, and strains (de Rochambeau 1989, 1998; Lauvergne 1982). 6 0 obj /Type /Page 2004-07-08T21:04:04+05:30 /Parent 2 0 R >> /Font << 18 0 obj /Font << /XObject << /MediaBox [0 0 576 791.7594] The fifth generation of telecommunications technologies, 5G, is fundamental to achieving a European gigabit society by 2025. In good seasons there may have been one billion rabbits. /PitStop 21 0 R 3 0 obj ""$$6*&&*6>424>LDDL_Z_||��� 2 2" �� �� ���Js�ꨐ/����5�Ş�i���� �� � �� �� � �� 2 !1AQq "2a35Rs��4r����� ? /PDFDocEncoding 20 0 R /TT2 52 0 R 1 0 obj /TT1 53 0 R /ColorSpace << /GS6 47 0 R endobj /Resources << x�̒MK1���s�=4��c�ۢ���A^��$cA0/b�����('+D$ N�$ Sometimes, the replacement chemicals can also be as bad, in one way or another. /TT25 72 0 R As 16 rabbits eat as much as one sheep (Short,1985), this is equivalent to approximately 60 million sheep and the consequent loss of production. /Rotate 0 /CS0 /DeviceRGB /Im3 70 0 R This blogpost will make a very brief overview of the role of the European Convention on Human Rights in assessment of this crisis. endobj << Let’s sum up. /GS1 48 0 R endstream /Type /Page >> /TT21 52 0 R /GS0 47 0 R /TT7 51 0 R >> << Mar-Jun 1997;13(2-3):109-19. doi: 10.1177/074823379701300202. /GS6 47 0 R /CS1 /DeviceGray /MediaBox [0 0 576 791.7594] /LC 0 Hazardous waste: its impact on human health in Europe Toxicol Ind Health. /Rotate 0 >> >> << /TT0 52 0 R Tiamulin was approved for use in veterinary medicine in 1979, followed by valnemulin in 1999.3 Retapamulin was the first pleuromutilin approved for topical use for humans, in 2007.4 A pleuromutilin for systemic use in humans, BC-3781, is currently und… /ColorSpace << /ColorSpace << /Rotate 0 /Author (Carman JA, Garner MG, Catton MG, Thomas S, Westbury HA, Cannon RM, Collins BJ and Tribe IG) /Filter /DCTDecode They are grey brown in colour with a pale coloured underside. Author H W Wyes 1 Affiliation 1 World Health Organization European Centre for Environment and Health, Bilthoven, The Netherlands. /MediaBox [0 0 576 791.7594] There are several variables in determining the direct impact of rabbits on primary production, such as the distribution and density of rabbits, and the type, level and value of production. /BitsPerComponent 8 /ExtGState << /CS7 /DeviceGray >> Domestic rabbits as well as wild rabbits belong to the species Oryctolagus cuniculus (European rabbit), which is the only domesticated mammal of western European origin. /Thumb 74 0 R /Parent 2 0 R It ... Impact Feral rabbits compete with native wildlife, damage vegetation and degrade the land. Nature / Human Impact "Two things fill the mind with ever new and increasing wonder and awe - - the starry heavens above me and the moral law within me." >> /Encoding 20 0 R /Subtype /Type1 /CropBox [0 0 576 791.7594] /Type /Page /Contents 80 0 R /ColorTransform 0 һ�}���g{��qD�>%�} i�q��Ag- 7k�A�ZCZ�-4[�����r�~��c���\V���P�`5�P�:(� D���E-�F�U�6�ɰ��Bm�נ���:�l��Ű�bT��M�y�T�&�Yl�mlS�����o������|��ar�$��؇�ׇ����N[��I��:I>�-L�q�f����w�MH�p*K��V�O�e4(�e�m�˲7���ʁ*V�2[�n� � ��ĕϊ�0��>E��A�L��z�Ճ��]QحP�A�~�IJ�q���L�Ώo�M^C�KhB��+�k%���l\�1����+[09TďSe��p�`��BGu�k1[Tus�S�~s�Y�� 11 0 obj /Parent 2 0 R /CreationDate (D:20040708210404+05'30') /GS0 47 0 R impact on animal and human health. /Im0 49 0 R endobj /XObject << /CS1 /DeviceGray >> /G10 24 0 R 4 0 obj 9 0 obj The impact of rabbits (in combination with kangaroos) in rangeland national parks have resulted in native plants and animals being in poor condition with little chance of regeneration. 25 0 obj /LastModified (D:20040708200856) Gone forever. /TT34 57 0 R >> /XObject << /Encoding << << /CC 101 0 R /BM /Normal >> /Resources << >> /TT2 57 0 R /TT15 52 0 R The aim to cover all urban areas, railways and major roads with uninterrupted fifth generation wireless communication can only be achieved by creating a very dense network of antennas and transmitters. >> endobj /TT6 56 0 R This review examines the current literature on the effects of future emissions and climate change on particulate matter (PM) and O3 air quality and on the consequent health impacts, with a focus on Europe. Some viral strains also affect hares and cottontail rabbits. ���� JFIF ` ` �� C endobj /ProcSet [/PDF /Text /ImageB /ImageC /ImageI] /GS1 48 0 R /GS4 47 0 R Mortality rates generally range from 70 to 100 percent. >> Rabbits prefer to live in areas with short grasses, including natural grasslands and rural pastures. >> Addressing the problems of lead in petrol and some of the pesticides are examples of this type of intervention. It conducted on E-coli and other bacteria and stated that the waves depressed their growth, changing properties, and activity of the cells. /Rotate 0 While I do set morning and evening mealtimes, there is hay out all day that they can eat when they like. Does climate change affect human health? /ColorSpace << /florin /fraction /guilsinglleft /guilsinglright /minus /perthousand /quotedblbase /quotedblleft /quotedblright /quoteleft impacts and adaptation in Europe in the 2010-2100 horizon in the key impact areas (agriculture, human health, forestry, river floods, energy, transport, tourism, and other areas). >> >> /Im2 95 0 R /TT30 50 0 R >> >> << >> >> /Font << /Length 770 Copenhagen, WHO Regional Offi ce for Europe. /ColorSpace << Malnutrition and undernutrition were highlighted as a concern for a number of developing countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America, which discussed the impacts of climate change on food security, particularly in relation to floods and drought. stream /ProcSet [/PDF /Text /ImageB] /Thumb 77 0 R >> >> /Font << /Producer (PDFlib PLOP 2.1.0p1 \(SunOS\)/Acrobat 4.05 Import Plug-in for Windows) /Font << /Rotate 0 >> /CS0 /DeviceRGB These long-term effects will clearly be a subject of numerous dissertations, articles and monographs. >> >> /Type /Page Rabbit populations may sustain numbers of predators such as cats and foxes subsequently increasing pressure on native animals, particularly those in critical weight ranges below 5kg. /TT25 57 0 R /ColorSpace << /TT23 54 0 R /X11 26 0 R /Im3 88 0 R 2004-07-08T21:04:18+05:30 /acircumflex /atilde /adieresis /aring /ae /ccedilla /egrave /eacute /ecircumflex /edieresis /Resources << 34, No. In this framework, the human health study aims at modelling and quantifying the most of the projected health impacts of climate change in Europe in the next 90 years. /GS5 48 0 R /ProcSet [/PDF /Text /ImageB] /Annots [100 0 R] /Font << /CS1 /DeviceGray /Contents 90 0 R 5 0 obj /Helv 19 0 R /F4 27 0 R Human activity and an ever-increasing population have already devastated much of our planet. /CS1 /DeviceGray /ColorSpace << /TT7 71 0 R /GS7 48 0 R ���� JFIF �� � Rabbits are at risk of being wiped out by Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease Virus, or RHDV. Advantages of rabbit reproduction are the exact timing of fertilization and pregnancy stages, high cell numbers and yield in blastocysts, relatively late … endobj >> /CS0 /DeviceRGB /TT0 52 0 R VHD human testing protocol 8 0 obj /TT2 56 0 R Climate change affects public health in many different ways. >> /TT2 50 0 R /ColorSpace << endobj /degree /plusminus /twosuperior /threesuperior /acute /mu 183 /periodcentered /cedilla /onesuperior /rgid (PB:13460519_AS:97421258395672@1400238447011) /TT23 79 0 R /TT6 56 0 R /MediaBox [0 0 576 791.7594] 21 0 obj 22 0 obj /CropBox [0 0 576 791.7594] /LastModified (D:20040708200857) >> Rabbits arrived with the First Fleet, but their spread took off in the mid-1800s after being released in Victoria for hunting. /Height 50 /dotlessi /lslash /oe /scaron /zcaron 160 /Euro 164 /currency 166 /TT1 54 0 R It has been estimated that at the turn of the last century the direct cost of rabbits to Australia, due to lost beef, lamb and wool production and expenditure on control measures, was $206 m… endobj endobj /Creator (Acrobat 5.0 Paper Capture Plug-in for Windows) >> E�Yf"�+}��Zc�p,N�d�:�6�F��ѽ�n��κ�gK��t:��9Kl/�U�`�2CNK ���v� �� ��S /TT1 55 0 R /TT6 51 0 R /TT3 51 0 R The present position statement was developed on behalf of the European Respiratory Society in order to identify areas of concern arising from climate change for individuals with respiratory disease, healthcare workers in the respiratory sector and policy makers. /ProcSet [/PDF /Text /ImageB] /Oslash /Ugrave /Uacute /Ucircumflex /Udieresis /Yacute /Thorn /germandbls /agrave /aacute /Contents 83 0 R /Contents 86 0 R /Contents [58 0 R 59 0 R 60 0 R 61 0 R 62 0 R 63 0 R 64 0 R 65 0 R] /Resources << 16 0 obj The feral European rabbit is one of the most widely distributed and abundant mammals in Australia. /F7 30 0 R /Resources << << endobj /CS7 /DeviceGray HEALTH BEHAVIOR - HEALTH STATUS - EDUCATIONAL STATUS - RISK FACTORS - SOCIOECONOMIC FACTORS - REVIEW LITERATURE Suggested citation Suhrcke M, de Paz Nieves C (2011). /TT16 54 0 R << /Thumb 87 0 R /ca .2 /LastModified (D:20040708200856) /Parent 2 0 R /Subject (Epidemiology and Infection) Climate-induced human mobility has a socioeconomic cost and can affect mental and physical health. Another issue is t… /GS7 48 0 R endobj Though there are plenty of studies on the potential impacts of 5G on human health, they are not clear-cut. Climate change will affect individuals with pre-existing respiratory disease, but the extent of the effect remains unclear. 1 0 obj Local populations, used in traditional backyard farming, are not surveyed and are currently disappearing. /GS1 48 0 R /XObject << 23 0 obj /CS4 /DeviceRGB /TT1 51 0 R /CropBox [0 0 576.7196 792.2395] 4 0 obj /Font << /CS6 /DeviceRGB /Parent 2 0 R <> 20 0 obj >> /XObject << >> About the fact sheet. >> endobj /Contents 76 0 R /Thumb 91 0 R /Title (Viral haemorrhagic disease of rabbits and human health) /Kids [7 0 R 8 0 R 9 0 R 10 0 R 11 0 R 12 0 R 13 0 R 14 0 R 15 0 R 16 0 R /TT28 56 0 R The rabbit’s rate of spread in Australia was the fastest of any colonising mammal anywhere in the world. ""$$6*&&*6>424>LDDL_Z_||� /Fields [] << European rabbits are Australia’s most widespread and destructive environmental and agricultural vertebrate pest. /TT32 55 0 R /Im3 82 0 R /ca 1 >> /Resources << /Name /ZaDb >> Habitat European Rabbits are found throughout Europe and in north west Africa. /LastModified (D:20040708200856) /ExtGState << >> /Resources << /GS6 47 0 R >> >> �� � } !1AQa"q2���#B��R��$3br� /F5 28 0 R /BM /Normal /Rotate 0 endobj >> << Over three-quarters of the State is inhabited by feral European rabbits. >> 2 0 obj /TT4 57 0 R >> /PageMode /UseNone FERAL EUROPEAN RABBIT (ORYCTOLAGUS CUNICULUS) The feral European rabbit is one of the most widely distributed and abundant mammals in Australia. /XObject <> (1#%(:3=<9387@H\N@DWE78PmQW_bghg>Mqypdx\egc�� C//cB8Bcccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc�� ��" �� /Type /Page endobj >> /CropBox [0 0 578.1599 793.4392] /TT5 79 0 R It is not only the cost of lives lost, but also the cost of years lived with a disability, of lost days of work or school, of chronic diseases to cure. /Type /Page <> /ExtGState << /Type /Font The male European hare is called a 'Jack' while the female is called a 'Jill'. stream This is a highly infectious and lethal form of viral hepatitis that affects European rabbits. �� � w !1AQaq"2�B���� #3R�br� <> stream Greg Mutze, Brian Cooke, and Peter Alexander (1998) THE INITIAL IMPACT OF RABBIT HEMORRHAGIC DISEASE ON EUROPEAN RABBIT POPULATIONS IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA.Journal of Wildlife Diseases: April 1998, Vol. I try to put as much of the rabbits’ days into their own hands—or paws—as I can. 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