How did Pericles contribute to Athenian greatness? Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. This was one reason the Athenians under Pericles decided to limit the people eligible to hold office. Politically he is credited with some kind of rapprochement with Cimon, who is said to have been recalled and allowed to resume the war with Persia, much preferred to fighting other Greeks, but the date of Cimon’s recall is uncertain, and the rumours are hard to disentangle. Ten years later when the treasury at Delos moved to Athens Pericles took advantage of the wealth to improve the city structurally, productively, and economically. Athenian women were dedicated to the care and upkeep of the family home. Pericles was born into the first generation able to use the new weapon of the popular vote against the old power of family politics. In 1781, George Washington forced the surrender of lord Cornwallis at? Instead, Pericles is interested in exploring the particular spirit of Athens, and those institutions that facilitated its prosperity and greatness. The only name associated with his early education is that of the musical theorist Damon, whose influence, it is said, was not just confined to music. Who was the chief justice of the supreme court in the 1950's and 1960's and how did he tend to rule. How did the growth of the Athenian power lead to war? Pericles was born into the Athenian aristocracy. C) The economy thrived under Pericles and he built magnificent temples. Pericles mother, Agariste, came from a wealthy, powerful family. In the second year of the Peloponnesian War a plague struck Athens, which was crowded with evacuees from the countryside, killing perhaps a quarter of the city’s inhabitants. His views and oratory did much to democratize Athens and they still inspire democrats to this day. He gave a speech in Athens, a public speech, honoring the many warriors who were killed in battle after the first year of the Peloponnesian War. Professor of Ancient History, University of Oxford, 1985–94. Pericles 495–429 B.C. His position rested on his continual reelection to the generalship and on his prestige, based, according to Thucydides, on his intelligence and incorruptibility. Answers (1) Maelyn 3 October, 08:00. Circa 461 B.C., Pericles became the ruler of Athens. 3. His mother was the niece of Cleisthenes, the Athenian noble who had introduced important democratic reforms. Plutarch seems to believe that Pericles and the Athenians incited the war, scrambling to implement their hawkish tactics "with a sort of arrogance and a love of strife". The city of Athens, however, was physically still much as it had been left by the Persian sack of 480, and its gods were inadequately housed. His account suffers from the fact that, 40 years younger, he had no firsthand knowledge of Pericles’ early career; it suffers also from his approach, which concentrates exclusively on Pericles’ intellectual capacity and his war leadership, omitting biographical details, which Thucydides thought irrelevant to his theme. Pericles set about toppling the Areopagus (ar-ee-OP-uh-guhs), or the noble council of Athens, in favor of a more democratic system that represented the interests of the people. The policy of war with Persia was abandoned and a formal peace probably made. In 447 BC Pericles engaged in his most admired excursion, the expulsion of barbarians from the Thracian peninsula of Gallipoli, to establish Athenian colonists in the region. Pericles Major Accomplishments A) Organized direct democracy in which a large number of male citizens took part in day to day affairs of government. Athenian society was a patriarchy; men held all rights and advantages, such as access to education and power. The Persian Wars affected the Greek city-states because they came under the leadership of Athens and were to never again invade the Persian Armies. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. Pericles was well known for his This was one reason the Athenians under Pericles decided to limit the people eligible to hold office. He brought forth Athens to prestige especially during the Peloponnesian War implementing his so-called Periclean Grand Strategy. This system remained remarkably stable, and with a few brief interruptions remained in place for 180 years, until 322 BC (aftermath of Lamian War). His masterful oratory skills helped him rise to the top of Athenian politics where he began to introduce government reforms. Among the contributions made by Pericles to the Athenian democracy was the payment of magistrates. The first known date in his life is 472 bce, when he paid for the production of the playwright Aeschylus’ Persian trilogy. Pericles, (born c. 495 bce, Athens—died 429, Athens), Athenian statesman largely responsible for the full development, in the later 5th century bce, of both the Athenian democracy and the Athenian empire, making Athens the political and cultural focus of Greece. One hundred years later, an orator argued for firm distinctions of status on the ground that the law provided even the poorest Athenian girl with a dowry in the form of her citizenship. The Persian War, begun as an ill-considered gesture in 499, could be considered ultimately successful. Fired up with Panhellenic pride, the Athenians spearheaded an alliance to take vengeance on the Persians. Which side of Europe did Germany invade first-east or west? Cimon died after 451, during his last campaign against Persia. To speak of this legislation as a move toward creating a “master race” is thus partly misleading, but the demagogic nature of the law seems clear. How did Pericles contribute to the Athenian greatness? The economy thrived and the government became more democratic. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). His achievements included the construction of the Acropolis, begun in 447. Only rumour associates him directly with the political convulsion of the next two years, which drove Cimon into exile, swung Athens away from its alignment with Sparta, and decisively strengthened the democratic elements in the Athenian constitution; but he probably did support the democratic leader Ephialtes in this period, and his introduction of pay for juries, unfortunately undatable, is a logical consequence of Ephialtes’ reforms. Children of foreign mothers would be excluded. He brought forth Athens to prestige especially during the Peloponnesian War implementing his so-called Periclean Grand Strategy. Lecture 16 - Radical Democracy in the Age of Pericles. After the second defeat of the Persians, all of Greece rejoiced. Approaching 50, he began a relationship with Aspasia of Miletus. Pericles convinced the Assembly to vote in favour of building and maintaining a large warfleet.This enabled Athens to defeat the Persians at the battle of … 4) What are three ways in which Pericles contributed to Athenian greatness? Pericles married in his late 20s but divorced some 10 years later. Pericles came from a rich and high-ranking noble family. Pericles (c. 495-429 B.C.) With the final defeat of the Persians, mainland Greece was safe from invasion. He paved war for an imperialist Athens that would rival the neighboring cities like Sparta. His achievements included the construction of the Acropolis, begun in 447. When the United States voted against joining the League of Nations. Pericles was among its victims. This helped his father, Xanthippus, focus on a political career. … Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. The three main goals he had were; to strengthen the Athenian democracy, to hold and strengthen the empire, and also to glorify Athens. He made the Acropolis of Athens as a symbol of the greatness of the city. He also made a lasting legacy on the freedom of expression which was said to be derived during his period of dominance. Athenian democracy was established in 508 BC under Cleisthenes following the tyranny of Isagoras. Please select which sections you would like to print: Corrections? Here, a group of independent Greek city-states, including Athens, decided to form a voluntary organisation called the League of Delos. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership. Why do you think such a law exists in the first place? He was known for being unscrupulously honest. With Hippias gone and the tyranny over, the leader of the Alcmaeonid family, Cleisthenes, started to put his own political system into power in Classical Athens. These sources are not all ascertainable, but they certainly preserve an invaluable amount of fact and contemporary gossip, which is sometimes nearly as useful. How does a dictator become the leader of the country? The social and financial … This brought stable policies to Athens’ relations with other Greek and foreign states. He introduced the practice of paying citizens to serve on juries, which allowed poor men to … 1 - Mercantilism benefited the colonies. He paved war for an imperialist Athens that would rival the neighboring cities like Sparta. Pericles statesmanship has been defined in many ways. Along with Ephiatles, Pericles succeeded in reforming the constitution governing Athens. But now a most extraordinary thing happened. Pericles goes to great lengths to detail the glory and the esteem of the Athenian empire. Pericles "How did the policies of Pericles contribute to the expanding power and influence of the Athenian Empire? The economy thrived and the government became more democratic. No source provides any background to this proposal; it is not even clear whether it was retroactive. How did Pericles contribute to Athenian greatness? With a government that pursues liberty and gives power to the many and not the few, Athenian democracy has become a model for success for all the Greek city-states. The Athenian historian quotes the stateman as saying “Make up your minds that happiness depends on being free” . That Pericles’ skull was of unusual shape seems well attested, but one can hardly speculate about the possible psychological consequences. Athens' influence began to dominate the other city-states of the Greek area. Cleisthenes wanted power for himself, but he didn’t want another tyranny. The League was so named because its treasury was originally located on the island of the same name. Pericles was elected military leader – Strategos – of Athens for an astonishing 29 years in a row. He was known to be a very cautious man, he never undertook in his own accord a battle involving much uncertainty and peril and he did not accede to the "vain impulse of the citizens". B) He hired the best architects and sculptors to rebuild the Acropolis, which the Persians destroyed. His aristocratic father had led the Athenian assembly and fought at the Battle of Salamis in the Persian Wars. Pericles, (born c. 495 bce, Athens—died 429, Athens), Athenian statesman largely responsible for the full development, in the later 5th century bce, of both the Athenian democracy and the Athenian empire, making Athens the political and cultural focus of Greece. In the winter of 478/7 a meeting was held at the island of Delos. In the remainder of his oration, Pericles is engaged in a characterization of the essence of Athens. Essay by xircom96, High School, 12th grade, A, July 2004 . download word file, 4 pages, 3.0 Funeral Oration. Omissions? The symbolism, although ambiguous, is most likely to be unfavourable. was the Athenian leader responsible for rebuilding the state of Athens when the Persian wars came to an end. Pericles. The peak of Athenian hegemony was achieved in the 440s to 430s BC, known as the Age of Pericles. The gaps are partly filled by the Greek writer Plutarch, who, 500 years later, began writing the life of Pericles to illustrate a man of unchallengeable virtue and greatness at grips with the fickleness of the mob and finished rather puzzled by the picture he found in his sources of Pericles’ responsibility for a needless war. However, during this war, he was struck by the plague, and he died by the plague that destroyed the city and many of those who were living there. 0. He’s been called a hawk, a charismatic leader, a demagogue, a populist and a gifted orator. The arrival of the Sophist philosophers in Athens occurred during his middle life, and he seems to have taken full advantage of the society of Zeno and particularly Anaxagoras, from whom he is said to have learned impassivity in the face of trouble and insult and skepticism about alleged divine phenomena. Scientists and historians have tried to identify the disease responsible based on the descriptions of Thucydides, but no consensus exists. Nothing further is known until 463, when he unsuccessfully prosecuted Cimon, the leading general and statesman of the day, on a charge of having neglected a chance to conquer Macedonia; this implies that Pericles advocated an aggressive policy of expansion for Athens. The law also may have passed because of a general wish to restrict access to the benefits of office and public distributions, but there was never any disposition on the part of Athenians to restrict economic opportunities for foreigners—who served in the fleet, worked on public buildings, and had freedom of trade and investment, with the crucial, but normal, exception of land and houses. In 451 or 450 Pericles carried a law confining Athenian citizenship to those of Athenian parentage on both sides. His opponents often pointed to his liberal spending of money on public art and architecture. Knowledge of the life of Pericles derives largely from two sources. In 1994 at a meeting in indonesia, the united states reached an agreement with the pacific rim nations to, Why did peasants generally support Luther's religious ideas. Both share several similarities, like the stature of their lineage, a rightful place in the Athenian annals of history, warfare and politics, the political clout they can muster, and as important socio-political figures to which many Athenian aspects were attributed to. The upper classes certainly had no prejudice against foreign marriages; the lower classes may well have had more, and, on the whole, it is possible to view Pericles here as championing exclusivist tendencies against immigrants who might break down the fabric of Athenian society. Pericles was an Athenian statesman, he led many naval expeditions in more that 20 years. It goes without saying that this decree furthered the economic dominance of Athens over the empire. Which of the following two statements does not describe mercantilism? He made the Acropolis of Athens as a symbol of the greatness of the city. The last phase in the political development of Athens and its democracy occurred during the political ascendancy of the democratic leader Pericles. However, many argue that Pericles was not a true democrat and claim that he was a populist and a demagogue. Pericles met the situation in part by extending a network of Athenian settlements throughout what may now be called the empire, thus strengthening Athenian control and providing new land for the growing Athenian population. 3. Pericles is perhaps best remembered for a building program centred on the Acropolis which included the Parthenon and for a funeral oration he gave early in the Peloponnesian War, as recorded by Thucydides. He also led Athens during the period of the Peloponnesian War. Pericles did achieved his goals for Athens. Thucydides hints at the same thing; although he is generally regarded as an admirer of Pericles, the great historian has, at this point, been criticised for bias towards Sparta. A correct assessment is vital for understanding Pericles, but explanations vary considerably; some argue that Pericles was merely forging a low-level political weapon for use against Cimon, who had a foreign mother. 2 - Gold was secured through a colony trading only with the mother country. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Author of. Pericles was an Athenian statesman. In the speech he honoured the fallen and held up Athenian democracy as an example to the rest of Greece. His father, Xanthippus, began his political career by a dynastic marriage to Agariste of the controversial Alcmaeonid family. His father, Xanthippus, a typical member of this generation, almost certainly of an old family, began his political career by a dynastic marriage into the controversial family of the Alcmaeonids. Together, they had overcome the mightiest empire the world had ever seen. He spent public money liberally on projects which kept Athenians employed. It was the custom at the time to honor the dead each year who had died defending their city-state, the city-state of Athens. When his two legitimate sons died, their son Pericles had to be legitimated. This alliance was called the Delian League. His Alcmaeonid mother, Agariste, provided him with relationships of sharply diminishing political value and her family curse, a religious defilement that was occasionally used against him by his enemies. Pericles was an Athenian statesman, he led many naval expeditions in more that 20 years. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. The historian Thucydides admired him profoundly and refused to criticize him. for print copy click here. The objective of this league was to ‘compensate themselves for losses by ravaging t… Because of a law he supported restricting Athenian citizenship to those of Athenian parentage on both sides, marriage was impossible. He claims that the uniqueness of the Athenian constitution stems from its bold innovation. The outbreak of war among the Greek states in 459 put a premium on military talent, and Pericles’ only recorded campaign in the next few years was a naval expedition in the Corinthian Gulf in 454, in which Athens defeated Achaea but failed to win more important objectives. The causes of the Peloponnesian War have been much debated, but most ancient historians laid the blame on Pericles and Athens. How is the history of king Leopold taught in the Congo? Among the contributions made by Pericles to the Athenian democracy was the payment of magistrates. Perhaps outbid in his search for popular support, Xanthippus was ostracized in 484 bce, though he returned in 480 to command the Athenian force at Mycale in 479, probably dying soon after. Year 12 Ancient History Assessment Task. From him Pericles may have inherited a leaning toward the people, along with landed property at Cholargus, just north of Athens, which put him high, though not quite at the highest level, on the Athenian pyramid of wealth. From him Pericles may have inherited a leaning toward the people, along with landed property just north of Athens, which made him quite wealthy by Athenian standards. Under his leadership Athenian democracy and the Athenian empire flourished, making Athens the political and cultural focus of Greece between the Greco-Persian and Peloponnesian wars. © 2021 Education Expert, All rights reserved. He did not lose his reign till his death. The old council of nobles, known as Areopagus, was made powerless and that paved the way for democracy in Greece. About forty years later Pericles, with a statesman named Ephialtes, diminished the Areopagus, which was a council of corrupt aristocrats. Athenian coins were to be purchased along with goods in the Athenian market. A few days before Pericles’ birth, according to the Greek historian Herodotus, Agariste dreamed she bore a lion. Pericles began changing Athen's democratic policies and the Athenian constitution as early as 462 when he, along with Ephiatles, created a "vote in the popular assembly." Only those born to two people of Athenian citizen status could henceforth be citizens and eligible to be magistrates. By a decree Pericles made the use of Athenian weights and measures and Athenian coins compulsory in most part of the empire. How did the growth of Athenian power lead to war? One is Pericles, and the other one is Alcibiades. He soon left their political camp, probably on the question of relations with Persia, and took the then new path of legal prosecution as a political weapon. During the Second Sacred War Pericles led the Athenian army against Delphi and reinstated Phocis in its sovereign rights on the oracle. Pericles also elevated Athens’s role within the Delian League, a naval alliance of Greek city-states unified to fight the Persians. Islands and city-states across the Aegean built ships, armed crews and sent lavish donations to the League's treasury on the island of Delos. This vote meant that the old noble council lost its power and Pericles used this moment to … Updates? Only those born to two people of Athenian citizen status could henceforth be citizens and eligible. Nonetheless, some women, known as hetaeras , did receive an education with the specific purpose of entertaining men, similar to the Japanese geisha tradition. Useful reading: Russel Meiggs, The Athenian Empire; Victor Ehrenberg, From Solon to Socrates. That Pericles immediately succeeded the assassinated Ephialtes as head of the democratic party in 461 is an ancient oversimplification; there were other men of considerable weight in Athens in the next 15 years. https://www.britannica.com/biography/Pericles-Athenian-statesman, Ancient History Encyclopedia - Biography of Pericles, Encyclopedia Virginia - Biography of Patrick Henry, Pericles - Children's Encyclopedia (Ages 8-11), Pericles - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). The island of Delos law confining Athenian citizenship to those of Athenian citizen status could henceforth be citizens and to! Pericles became the ruler of Athens when the Persian wars came to an end was originally located how did pericles contribute to athenian greatness! Coins were to be purchased along with Ephiatles, Pericles became the ruler of Athens, and the government more... 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